Energy conservation is the priority of innovative development of the country
Energy conservation is now an urgent problem, and the energy efficiency determined by the President of the Russian Federation as one of the priorities of innovative development of the country.
The Momentum in the implementation of the state policy of energy saving and energy efficiency was given by the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 4 June 2008. "On some measures to improve energy and environmental efficiency of Russian economy" and relevant orders of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation. In accordance with the decree of the President of the Russian Federation, decisions of the enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the State Council of the Russian Federation July 2, 2009. and instructions of the government of the Russian Federation, the country has intensified work on implementation of the state policy of energy saving and increase of energy efficiency.
In 2010 adopted the State programme of the Russian Federation "energy Saving and energy efficiency for the period up to 2020" ("GPEE-2020"), which was approved at the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation 21.10.2010 and approved by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 27.12.2010 № 2446-R. the Program aims to become a tool for solving large-scale objectives to reduce by 2020 energy intensity of GDP by 40%.
Today in the Russian legislative and regulatory legal base in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency, and is in the implementation stage.
At the moment, the energy intensity of Russian economy is significantly higher than in the calculation of purchasing power parity, the same indicator in the United States, Japan and developed countries of the European Union.
In the near future lack of energy can be a significant deterrent to economic growth. According to estimates, by 2015, the energy intensity reduction rates in the absence of a coordinated state policy for energy efficiency can dramatically slow down. This can lead to even more dynamic growth in energy demand in the country. Of oil and gas reserves in Russia are sufficient, however, the increase in hydrocarbon production and transport infrastructure development require large investments. Measures to reduce GDP energy intensity over the period 1998-2005. was not enough to stop the dynamic growth of demand for energy and power. The actual growth in demand for gas and electricity was higher than provided by the "Energy strategy of Russia" values.
The barriers to the development of energy saving and energy efficiency in the country can be divided into four main groups:
- lack of motivation;
- lack of information;
- lack of experience of financing the projects;
- lack of organization and coordination.
There are two ways to solve the problem:
- first - a very capital-intensive way of increasing production of oil and gas and construction of new power generation facilities;
- and the second one is less expensive, associated with economic growth in the country by increasing the efficiency of use of fuel and energy resources.
It should be noted that in practice the necessary symbiosis of the first and second options with the undoubted priority of energy efficiency.
In the Russian Energy sector is one of the largest potentials in the field of energy efficiency. In particular we are talking about a major upgrade of the distribution grid complex, where we still observed a significant loss. With the appropriate upgrades, they can be cut in half.
For the practical implementation of energy efficiency programs energy retail companies offer their customers energy audits (energy audit). Energy audit is the collection and processing of information about using energy resources in order to obtain reliable information on the volume of used power resources, about indicators of power efficiency, identifying energy saving possibilities and energy efficiency with the reflection of the obtained results in the energy passport.
The main objectives of energy audits are:
- obtaining accurate data on volume of used energy resources;
- definition of energy efficiency indicators;
- definition of potential of power savings and increase of power efficiency;
- development of a list of typical, publicly available energy saving measures and improving energy efficiency and conducting their valuation.
According to the results of an energy survey of the possible preparation of a report containing a list of measures on energy saving and energy efficiency, different from the typical generally available activities on energy saving and increasing energy efficiency.
Energy audits and implemented on the basis of the Program of improving the energy efficiency of the facility provides:
- improving the reliability of energy supplies;
- improving the reliability and safety of power plants;
- increasing the efficiency of energy use;
- optimization of energy costs for organizational and economic reasons.
When carrying out energy inspection (energy audit) conducted an analysis of the condition of power supply, heat supply, water supply, technology Park, etc. of the enterprise (object), assessment systems and tools (units) energy accounting and their compliance with statutory requirements, the identification of unreasonable losses, assessment of system of regulation of energy consumption and use of energy, check the energy balances of the enterprise (facility), the calculation of specific power consumption for production (or labor), the evaluation of the major energy-saving measures implemented by the company, the formation of the Energy passport of the enterprise.
The energy passport is a concise, reflecting the significant volume of energy resources consumption, efficiency in their use and the possibilities of improving them. Applications: buildings, structures, constructions of industrial or non-industrial power equipment, technological processes, etc. This is the official document the requirements to which are established by the authorized Federal body of Executive power. There is again composed of energy passports take some form of accounting procedure.